top of page
  • Writer's pictureAnJenette Afridi. MA

The Science of Decision-Making: How Cognitive Biases Affect Leadership


Leadership is often about making difficult decisions. Whether it's about resource allocation, team building, or strategic planning, the choices leaders make can significantly impact the future of an organization. However, what is less discussed is the fact that these decisions are not always entirely rational or objective. Cognitive biases—systematic patterns of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment—often cloud our decision-making processes. Understanding and mitigating these biases is crucial for effective leadership. Explore this and more in AnJenette's article on the science of decision-making.

Common Cognitive Biases in Leadership

Confirmation Bias

Leaders have a tendency to favor information that confirms their existing beliefs or hypotheses. This can be dangerous as it may result in overlooking valuable data and perspectives that could challenge or enhance current strategies.

Overconfidence Bias

An inflated view of one's skills, talents, and decision-making abilities can lead leaders into risky or poorly thought-out ventures. While confidence is a vital trait for leaders, an overabundance can be detrimental.

Anchoring Bias

This bias occurs when leaders give disproportionate weight to initial information, affecting their subsequent judgments and negotiations. For example, during a negotiation, the first number put on the table often serves as an anchor, influencing how both parties view subsequent offers.

Sunk Cost Fallacy

The more resources we've invested in a project, the less likely we are to abandon it, even if evidence suggests that it's doomed or not advantageous to continue.

Strategies to Counteract Cognitive Biases

Increase Awareness

Recognizing the existence of cognitive biases is the first step to mitigating their impact. Leadership training programs should incorporate modules on cognitive biases and how they influence decision-making.

Foster Diverse Teams and Opinions

Surrounding yourself with a diverse group of people can help minimize the impact of biases. Different perspectives and backgrounds bring in a variety of viewpoints, thus enriching the decision-making process.

Delay Decision-making

When possible, leaders should postpone making decisions until they've had ample time to reflect. This pause allows for a more thorough examination of the situation, reducing impulsive decisions fueled by biases.

Evaluate and Re-evaluate

Ongoing evaluation of projects, especially when they have been time and resource-intensive, can help prevent falling into the sunk cost fallacy. Regular audits and project reviews can provide an objective basis for continuing or discontinuing investments.

Institutionalizing Unbiased Decision-making

Leaders can take steps to embed systems and processes that reduce the influence of cognitive biases in decision-making. This may include formal decision-making frameworks, regular project reviews, and training programs that help employees identify and counteract biases.


Cognitive biases are inherent in human psychology but understanding them can guide us towards making better decisions. By actively seeking to recognize and mitigate these biases, leaders can not only improve their decision-making but can also foster a culture of critical thinking and objectivity within their organizations.

About the Author

AnJenette Afridi, MA, is an active member of the National Speakers Association and a lifelong member of the American Psychological Association. Her expertise is fortified by decades of experience, a magna cum laude Master of Arts in Sport Psychology (MA) accompanied by a distinguished Certificate of Honor for Excellence in Master's Project Research on Motivation, and a deep engagement in a Doctor of Psychology (PsyD) program including a certificate in Organizational Psychology. TriEdge Leadership Mindset is a revolutionary approach that fuses the mental toughness honed by elite athletes through leading-edge Sport Psychology, the principles of organizational excellence and team dynamics from advanced Organizational Psychology, and enhanced cognitive agility and behavioral awareness grounded in evidence-based Cognitive Behavioral Science into actionable game plans.


AnJenette Afridi, MA |

TriEdge Leadership Mindset Article

All Rights Reserved | Copyright © 2023



bottom of page